Hybrid warfare and election meddling: assessing the digital threat to democracy

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Reports of election fraud and voter manipulation by the use of cyber have been linked to the US elections of 2016, the UK general elections and the German elections of 2017. Such hostile activities in the so called information/cyber sphere are a recognized part of so called ‘Hybrid Warfare’. The UK (and other NATO states) are particularly sensitive to such operations of election meddling due to different legal and ethical approaches of democratic States in the conduct of such information operations and their non-democratic opponents, which aim to exploit existing vulnerabilities.

This research aims to analyse election meddling and the exploitation of the social media as category of hybrid warfare as a stocktaking exercise and to aid the present discussion on how to defend the UK’s public from the manipulation of opinion and how to develop counter-strategies.

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You will find a PP of the project on Academia.edu and ResearchGate



Associate Professor in International Law and Centre Head CROLS – Extraordinary Visiting Associate Professor in War Studies at FHS, Stockholm as PI

Senior Lecturer in Sustainable IT at University of the West of England as PI

Associate Professor and Head of Research Ground operative and tactical areas Swedish National Defence College (SNDC) as CI

Military Legal Consultant. Former day-to day head of the UK Armed Forces’ Prosecuting Authority responsible for overseeing all military prosecutions world wide. Legal Military Author.

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