Dr Ian Stephenson’s research develops new techniques to produce and render higher quality 3D images for feature film production. The main techniques emerging from the research are as follows:
- Anti-aliased noise to reduce artifacts when rendering rough or organic surfaces.
- Vector texturing to allow vector artwork to be directly used within the 3D rendering process.
- File compression techniques to significantly reduce file size without compromising quality.
- Use of volumetric point clouds for rendering volumetric effects such as smoke.
- Motion blur to more realistically reflect objects moving at speed.
The NCCA makes full implementation details publicly available in an ‘open source’ format, intending the research to be widely adopted.
In 2007 Pixar implemented “Slow Shutter Opening/Timing” in their Photoreaslistic RenderMan (PRMan) Software. The first films to use the technique emerging in 2008. The shutter opening controls were announced as a “Major New Feature” of PRMan 13.
Following successful use of the new motion blur technique in the short film Presto in 2008, Pixar used it in Cars 2, which was released in 2011. The technique was used extensively in the film, which was more dependent on high speed action than any previous Pixar film. Cars 2 has a worldwide gross of $559,852,396.
Pixar are an important developer within the film industry and their software has been used by 49 out of the last 53 nominees for Visual Effects Academy Awards. They sell their PRMan rendering software to most of the major digital effects studios. The extensive reach of the software is evident through their international clients, which include Digital Domain, USA; Weta Digital, New Zealand; Moving Picture Company (MPC), USA and Canada; Industrial Light and Magic (ILM) UK; Framestore (UK and USA), Cinesite, UK and Double Negative, UK among others. PRman currently costs $2000 per copy, plus $600 annual maintenance.
Studios such as these require thousands of copies each, generating significant revenue for Pixar.
Through its inclusion within PRMan, the Shutter Timing technique is now part of the software used on virtually every major feature film production including (in 2012 alone): The Avengers, Bourne Legacy, Brave, The Dark Knight Rises, The Hobbit, Jon Carter, Life of Pi, Men in Black 3, Prometheus, TED, Total Recall and Skyfall.
Though motion blur is only one aspect of the highly complex techniques used for rendering, attention to detail at this level is what distinguishes high end commercial systems such as PRMan. Though motion blur is a small part of the production process, the films alone generated billions of dollars in revenue and were viewed by hundreds of millions of people. Artists working on them recognise the importance of small details and, while the average audience member may not be able to explicitly identify them, they contribute significantly to the viewing experience. This in turn contributes to the global animation industry worth $207 US billion.
- Stephenson I, (ed), 2003 Production Rendering, Design and Implementation. Springer.
- Stephenson, I., 2007. Improving Motion Blur: Shutter Efficiency and Temporal Sampling. Journal of Graphic Tools, 12 (1), pp. 9-15. http://jgt.akpeters.com/papers/Stephenson07/
- Stephenson, I., 2005. Shutter efficiency and temporal sampling. In: International Conference on Computer Graphics and Interactive Techniques. ACM SIGGRAPH 2005 Sketches: SESSION: Cinematography, July 31 – August 04, 2005, Los Angeles, California. http://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?doid=1187112.1187234
- Stephenson, I. 2001 AntiAlisasing Perlin Noise. In: International Conference on Computer Graphics and Interactive Techniques. ACM SIGGRAPH 2001 Sketches.
- Haddon, J. & Stephenson, I. 2001 Vector Texturing. In: International Conference on Computer Graphics and Interactive Techniques. ACM SIGGRAPH 2001 Sketches.
- Stephenson, I., 2002. Compressing RIB files using DIFF. Pixar User Group, July 2002, San Anatonio, Texas http://dctsystems.co.uk/Text/diffRibs.pdf
- Stephenson, I., 2003. Rendering Smoke With Particle Maps. Pixar User Group. August , 2003, San Diego, California http://dctsystems.co.uk/RenderMan/smoke.html